Operational Technology (OT) environments, such as those found in industrial control systems (ICS) and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), are becoming increasingly connected to the internet, which brings significant benefits in terms of efficiency and automation. However, this increased connectivity also brings new cyber security risks that must be addressed.

One of the main challenges in securing OT environments is that these systems are often designed for reliability and availability, rather than security. As a result, traditional IT security measures, such as firewalls and antivirus software, may not be suitable for these environments. Additionally, many OT systems are legacy systems that were not designed with cyber security in mind, which makes it more difficult to secure them.

To address these challenges, organisations must take a holistic approach to cyber security in OT environments. This includes implementing security controls at the network level, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, as well as at the device level, such as secure boot and secure firmware updates. Additionally, organisations should implement security monitoring and incident response capabilities to detect and respond to any security incidents.

One important aspect of securing OT environments is the use of security best practices and standards, such as the International Society of Automation (ISA) / IEC 62443 series of standards for industrial automation and control systems security. These standards provide guidelines for the design, implementation, and maintenance of secure OT environments, including the use of secure communications protocols and the implementation of security controls at various levels of the system.

Another important aspect of securing OT environments is user awareness and education. Many cyber security incidents occur as a result of human error, such as phishing attacks or the use of weak passwords. Therefore, it is important to educate employees on cyber security best practices and the importance of maintaining security in the OT environment.

In conclusion, securing OT environments is a complex task that requires a holistic approach. Organisations must implement security controls at the network and device level, use security best practices and standards, and raise user awareness and education to ensure the protection of the industrial control systems and the Industrial Internet of Things. Cybersecurity design within the operation technology environment is crucial to ensure the safe and reliable operation of industrial processes and prevent costly downtime.

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